Mozart and Lichnowsky departed Vienna on the morning of 8 April , they reached Prague on 10 April. The King was commissions for new works. This hotel was the scene of a concert performed the next day. At the same concert, Mozart accompanied his friend Josepha Duschek who travelled to Dresden from her home in Prague. Duschek sang arias from The Marriage of Don Giovanni. In a letter to his wife, Mozart writes that they arranged a quartet at the hotel, which they performed in the chapel.
Mozart played the newly written Coronation Concerto K. On 18 April Lichnowsky and Mozart departed for Leipzig. Mozart spent three days here, he visited the famous Thomaskirche , where Johann Sebastian Bach had served as music director several decades earlier. Mozart had become a great admirer of Bach's music during his early years in Vienna, thanks to the influence of Gottfried van Swieten. Mozart improvised on the organ of the Thomaskirche. On this occasion, the choir of the Thomasschule performed Bach's motet'Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied, BWV , Mozart took advantage of the occasion to copy the composition out of all choirparts.
As noted above, Mozart had told his wife. Reading this, the King scribbled in the margin "Directeur du Port", meaning that Mozart should be referred to Jean-Pierre Duport , the director of the royal chamber music. According to Deutsch, Mozart was "not on good terms" with Duport. Attempting to "curry favor", he composed a set of nine piano variations on a minuet by Duport, K.
No royal audience was granted at this time, indeed, there is no solid evidence that Mozart remained in Potsdam. On 8 May, Mozart returned to Leipzig , where on 12 May he gave a concert at the Gewandhaus ; the concert program consisted of Mozart's music: the piano concerti K. Following a custom of the time, the first of the symphonies was split, the first two movements being played at the opening of the concert and the second two before the intermission.
The concert, organized on short notice was not well attended. Mozart writes back home, that "from the point of view of applause and glory this concert was magnificent but the profits were wretchedly meager". Prince Lichnowsky , traveling with Mozart up to this time, left Leipzig in mid-May, Mozart's subsequent travels were on his own, it may have been during the journey.
The amount of the debt was florins , for which the Prin.
Seraglio A seraglio or serail is the sequestered living quarters used by wives and concubines in an Ottoman household. In Montesquieu's Persian Letters , one of the main characters, a Persian from the city of Isfahan , is described as an occupant of a seraglio.
The term can refer to other traditional Turkish palaces—every imperial prince had his own—and other grand houses built around courtyards. In modern Italian the word is spelled serraglio, it may refer for example of caged wild animals. The ghettoes established in many Italian cities following the promulgation by Pope Paul IV in of the papal bull Cum nimis absurdum were called serraglio degli ebrei, "enclosure of the Jews"; the Seraglio is an artificial island on which Mantua is located. Caravanserai , another word involving saray, is an inn or rest stop for caravans Sarayburnu Grand Serail in Beirut , now the office of the prime minister of Lebanon Imperial Harem Harem The Abduction from the Seraglio, opera singspiel by Mozart Zenana Allaboutturkey.
Opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery and sometimes dance or ballet; the performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor.
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Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition. In traditional number opera , singers employ two styles of singing: recitative , a speech-inflected style and self-contained arias; the 19th century saw the rise of the continuous music drama.
In the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. The first third of the 19th century saw the high point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini , Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini all creating works that are still performed, it saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer.
The mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera and dominated by Giuseppe Verdi in Italy and Richard Wagner in Germany; the popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini and Richard Strauss in the early 20th century.
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During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism and Minimalism. With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso and Maria Callas became known to much wider audiences that went beyond the circle of opera fans. Since the invention of radio and television, operas were performed on these mediums.
Beginning in , a number of major opera houses began to present live high-definition video transmissions of their performances in cinemas all over the world. Since , complete performances are live streamed; the words of an opera are known as the libretto. Some composers, notably Wagner, have written their own libretti. Traditional opera referred to as "number opera", consists of two modes of singing: recitative, the plot-driving passages sung in a style designed to imitate and emphasize the inflections of speech, aria in which the characters express their emotions in a more structured melodic style.
Vocal duets and other ensembles occur, choruses are used to comment on the action. Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, are referred to as arioso ; the terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in detail below. During both the Baroque and Classical periods, recitative could appear in two basic forms, each of, accompanied by a different instrumental ensemble: secco recitative, sung with a free rhythm dictated by the accent of the words, accompanied only by basso continuo , a harpsichord and a cello. Over the 18th century, arias were accompanied by the orchestra.
By the 19th century, accompagnato had gained the upper hand, the orchestra played a much bigger role, Wagner revolutionized opera by abolishing all distinction between aria and recitative in his quest for what Wagner termed "endless melody". Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagner's example, though some, such as Stravinsky in his The Rake's Progress have bucked the trend. The changing role of the orchestra in opera is described in more detail below. The Italian word opera means "work", both in the sense of the labour done and the result produced; the Italian word derives from the Latin opera, a singular noun meaning "work" and the plural of the noun opus.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary , the Italian word was first used in the sense "composition in which poetry and music are combined" in Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, it was writt. Scientific pitch notation Scientific pitch notation is a method of specifying musical pitch by combining a musical note name and a number identifying the pitch's octave.
Although scientific pitch notation was designed as a companion to scientific pitch, the two are not synonymous. Scientific pitch is a pitch standard—a system that defines the specific frequencies of particular pitches.
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Scientific pitch notation concerns only how pitch names are notated, that is, how they are designated in printed and written text, does not inherently specify actual frequencies. Thus, the use of scientific pitch notation to distinguish octaves does not depend on the pitch standard used; the notation makes use of the traditional tone names which are followed by numbers showing which octave they are part of. The system begins at a frequency of The octave 0 of the scientific pitch notation is traditionally called the sub-contra octave, the tone marked C0 in SPN is written as,C or C, or CCC in traditional systems.
Octave 0 of SPN marks the low end of what humans can perceive, with the average person being able to hear frequencies no lower than 20 Hz. The octave number increases by 1 upon an ascension from B to C. Scientific pitch notation is used to specify the range of an instrument, it provides an unambiguous means of identifying a note in terms of textual notation rather than frequency, while at the same time avoiding the transposition conventions that are used in writing the music for instruments such as the clarinet and guitar.
It is easily translated into staff notation, as needed. Scientific pitch notation avoids possible confusion between various derivatives of Helmholtz notation which use similar symbols to refer to different notes. With scientific pitch notation, middle C is always C4, C4 is never any note but middle C.
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This notation system avoids the "fussiness" of having to visually distinguish between four and five primes, as well as the typographic issues involved in producing acceptable subscripts or substitutes for them. Although pitch notation is intended to describe sounds audibly perceptible as pitches, it can be used to specify the frequency of non-pitch phenomena.
There are pitch-octave notation conventions that appear similar to scientific pitch notation but are based on an alternative octave convention that differs from scientific pitch notation by one octave. This convention is related to a similar convention in sample-based trackers, where C5 is the basic pitch at which a sample plays, forcing the musician to treat samples at any other pitch as transposing instruments when using them in songs. Distance in this space corresponds to musical pitch distance in an equal-tempered scale.
An equal-tempered semitone can be subdivided further into cents. The notation is sometimes used in the context of meantone temperament, does not always assume equal temperament nor the standard concert A4 of Hz; the standard proposed to the Acoustical Society of America explicitly states a logarithmic scale for frequency, which excludes meantone temperament, the base frequency it uses gives A4 a frequency of Hz.
However, when dealing with earlier music that did not use equal temperament, it is understandably easier to refer to notes by their closest modern equivalent, as opposed to specifying the difference using cents every time. In her accession to power and her rule of the empire, Catherine relied on her noble favourites, most notably Grigory Orlov and Grigory Potemkin.
Assisted by successful generals such as Alexander Suvorov and Pyotr Rumyantsev , admirals such as Fyodor Ushakov , she governed at a time when the Russian Empire was expanding by conquest and diplomacy. In the south, the Crimean Khanate was crushed following victories over the Ottoman Empire in the Russo—Turkish wars , Russia colonised the territories of Novorossiya along the coasts of the Black and Azov Seas.
In the east, Russia started establishing Russian America. Catherine reformed the administration of Russian guberniyas , many new cities and towns were founded on her orders. However, military conscription and the economy continued to depend on serfdom , the increasing demands of the state and private landowners led to increased levels of reliance on serfs ; this was one of the chief reasons behind several rebellions, including the large-scale Pugachev's Rebellion of cossacks and peasants.
Catherine decided to have herself inoculated against smallpox by Thomas Dimsdale. While this was considered a controversial method at the time, she succeeded, her son Pavel was inoculated as well. Catherine sought to have inoculations throughout her empire stating: "My objective was, through my example, to save from death the multitude of my subjects who, not knowing the value of this technique, frightened of it, were left in danger.
By 2 million inoculations were administered in the Russian Empire. Construction of many mansions of the nobility, in the classical style endorsed by the Empress, changed the face of the country, she enthusiastically supported the ideals of the Enlightenment and is regarded as an enlightened despot. As a patron of the arts she presided over the age of the Russian Enlightenment , a period when the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens , the first state-financed higher education institution for women in Europe , was established.
In accordance with the custom prevailing in the ruling dynasties of Germany , she received her education chiefly from a French governess and from tutors. Catherine was known by the nickname Fike, her childhood was quite uneventful. She once wrote to her correspondent Baron Grimm : "I see nothing of interest in it. Catherine's rise to power was supported by her mother's wealthy relatives who were both wealthy nobles and royal relations; the choice of Sophie as wife of her second cousin, the prospective tsar Peter of Holstein-Gottorp, resulted from some amount of diplomatic management in which Count Lestocq , Peter's aunt Elizabeth and Frederick II of Prussia took part.
Lestocq and Frederick wanted to strengthen the friendship between Prussia and Russia to weaken Austria's influence and ruin the Russian chancellor Bestuzhev , on whom Empress Elizabeth relied, who acted as a known partisan of Russo-Austrian co-operation. Catherine first met Peter III at the age of Based on her writings, she found, she disliked his fondness for alcohol at such a young age. Peter still played with toy soldiers. Catherine wrote that she stayed at one end of the castle, Peter at the other; the diplomatic intrigue failed due to the intervention of Sophie's mother, Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp.
Historical accounts portray Johanna as a abusive woman who loved gossip and court intrigues, her hunger for fame centred on her daughter's prospects of becoming empress of Russia, but she infuriated Empress Elizabeth, who banned her from the country for spying for King Frederick of Prussia. The Empress Elizabeth knew the family well: she had intended to marry Princess Johanna's brother Charles Augustus , who had died of smallpox in before the wedding could take place. In spite of Johanna's interference, Empress Elizabeth took a strong liking to the daughter, who, o.
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