Models of Mental Disorders: A New Comparative Psychiatry

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Toward a neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: from actions to habits to compulsion. Nat Neurosci. Carrots and sticks fail to change behavior in cocaine addiction. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits. Mol Psychiatry. Model-based choices involve prospective neural activity. Variability in dopamine genes dissociates model-based and model-free reinforcement learning. J Neurosci. Dopamine enhances model-based over model-free choice behavior.

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Corticostriatal control of goal-directed action is impaired in schizophrenia. Impairments in goal-directed actions predict treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder. PLoS One. Reduced goal-directed action control in autism spectrum disorder.

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Autism Res. A meta-analytic review of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and verbal fluency performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Cogn Neuropsychiatry. Cognitive functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.

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Meta-analysis of intelligence quotient IQ in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychol Rev. Cogn Psychol. Prefrontal cortex and executive functions in healthy adults: a meta-analysis of structural neuroimaging studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. Uncertainty-based competition between prefrontal and dorsolateral striatal systems for behavioral control.

A modified card sorting test sensitive to frontal lobe defects. The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory: development and validation of a short version. Psychol Assess. A short form of the metacognitions questionnaire: properties of the MCQ Behav Res Ther. Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Sydney, Australia: Psychology Foundation; J Clin Psychiatry.

PubMed Google Scholar. US Census Bureau. Stress prompts habit behavior in humans. Socially evaluated cold pressor stress after instrumental learning favors habits over goal-directed action. Stress enhances model-free reinforcement learning only after negative outcome. Working-memory capacity protects model-based learning from stress. The interaction of acute and chronic stress impairs model-based behavioral control.

Model-based learning and individual differences in depression: The moderating role of stress. Published online April 12, Transdiagnostic symptom clusters and associations with brain, behavior, and daily function in mood, anxiety, and trauma disorders. Resting-state connectivity biomarkers define neurophysiological subtypes of depression. Nat Med. Evaluating the evidence for biotypes of depression: methodological replication and extension of. Neuroimage Clin. Goals and habits in the brain.

Models of Mental Disorders

New developments in human neurocognition: clinical, genetic, and brain imaging correlates of impulsivity and compulsivity. CNS Spectr. Taking Psychiatry Research Online. Cross-trial prediction of treatment outcome in depression: a machine learning approach.

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Views 2, Citations 0. View Metrics. Original Investigation. Claire M. Published online October 9, Goal-Directed Control. Other Cognitive Tests. Self-report Symptoms. Follow-up Testing. Statistical Analysis. Dimension vs Diagnosis. Back to top Article Information. Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account.

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In particular, there have been only very limited attempts to write about the philosophical, conceptual, and controversial issues in this field; to pull together diverse findings; and to provide some general perspective on its future. As will probably be apparent, I am a clinical psychiatrist who also has a fundamental interest in animal behavior, especially primate social behavior. I entered the field from a clinical research standpoint to devel- op some animal models of depression after being stimulated to do so by Dr. The field has grown rapidly since then and there is considerable research activity.

Indeed, the re- search activity has grown more rapidly than our conceptualization of what animal models are and are not.

Psychiatric symptomics: a new perspective on mental disorders - Eiko Fried

Animal preparations are now available for studying specific aspects of certain types of psychopathology. Thoughtful workers in the animal modeling field no longer talk about comprehensive models but rather about more limited experimental preparations in animals for studying certain specific aspects of human psychopathology. Help Centre.